Thyroid Disorders

Thyroid gland makes thyroid hormones T4 and T3. Thyroid hormones affect function of almost all organ systems of our body. Thyroid hormone imbalance can occur at any age but is more common in adults and elderly.

Thyroid disorders broadly can be categorized into 3 types


  • Hypothyroidism
  • Hyperthyroidism)
  • Goitre (benign or cancer)

Clinical condition of low thyroid hormones in blood is called “hypothyroidism” and high thyroid hormones in blood is called “thyrotoxicosis”. Hyperfunctional thyroid gland making inappropriately high levels of hormones is called “hyperthyroidism”. Hypothyroidism is most common thyroid problem and is more common in women.

Thyroid hormone disorders affect our health in negative way. They have impact on overall metabolism, mental health, sense of well being.Thyroid hormones also affect heart, muscles, bones, energy levels, sexual function, fertility etc.

Thyroid disorders in children affect their physical growth, mental growth and sexual development.

Usual tests to diagnose thyroid disorders are


  • T4, T3, TSH levels in blood
  • Anti TPO antibodies
  • Thyroid ultrasound
  • Thyroid FNAC
  • Thyroid scan / Thyroid iodine uptake study etc.

Treatment options for thyroid disorders


Hypothyroidism is treated with thyroid hormone replacement.Hyperthyroidism can be treated with anti thyroid medicines or radio iodine therapy or surgery.

Thyroid cancer is treated by surgery followed by radio iodine therapy if required.